Ecological Characteristics And Viral Transmission Capability of Aedes aegypti And Ae. albopictus

DOI: 10.6525/TEB.201907_35(13).0001

Cheng Cheng1,2, Yen-Chi Chen1,2, Hwa-Jen Teng1*, Pei-Yun Shu1, and Shu-Ying Li1

2019 Vol.35 NO.13

Correspondence Author: Hwa-Jen Teng1*

  • 1Center for Diagnostics and Vaccine Development , Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan
  • 2National Mosquito-Borne Diseases Control Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan

Abstract:

      In Taiwan, dengue fever vector species, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are also capable of transmitting yellow fever virus, chikungunya virus and Zika virus. These two species cause a public health concern. It is critical to understand the ecological characteristics and viral transmission capability of both species. We searched the keywords '' Aedes aegypti '' or ''Aedes albopictus'' in MEDLINE complete database. Under summer temperatures (24–35oC) in southern Taiwan, mosquitoes develop fast and adults live longer. Population density of mosquitoes increase rapidly within short period of time, which increases the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Although the distribution of Ae. aegypti is limited in some areas of Taiwan, this species has the properties of anthropophilia, endophilia (70–80%), multiple feeding behavior and higher viral transmission capability. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector in the regions with the presence of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, both indoor and outdoor controls are critical. On the other hand, Ae. albopictus is widely distributed throughout Taiwan. Characteristics of outdoor preference (³98%), single feeding behavior, lower viral transmission ability and high proportions of Wolbachia infections make this species not an important vector in the coexistent regions of these two species and the only vector in the regions of the Ae. albopictus presence. Outdoor control is recommended against Ae. albopictus. It is estimated that under the optimal condition within 30 days, one female Ae. aegypti along with high population density around is capable of infecting 84 persons with dengue virus and 2,442 persons with Chikungunya virus. Aedes albopictus can transmit 8 and 32 persons with dengue virus and Chikungunya virus, respectively. As for such high disease transmission efficiency, Ae. aegypti requires specific preventive strategies to reduce its population density to decrease the human-virus contact. Due to the wide distribution of Ae. albopictus, the risk assessment of the mosquito-borne diseases should be carried out. The preventive strategy for the high-risk areas should be launched.